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Utah AG Leads Bipartisan Lawsuit against Tech Giant Google

Utah v. Google says Google Illegally Maintains an App Store Monopoly; Unfairly Edges Out Competition

SALT LAKE CITY – Today, Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes led a coalition of 37 attorneys general to file a lawsuit against Google in California. Utah v. Google alleges exclusionary conduct relating to the Google Play Store for Android. This antitrust lawsuit is the newest legal action against the tech giant, claiming illegal, anticompetitive, and/or unfair business practices.   Reyes and the States accuse Google of using its dominance to unfairly restrict competition with Google Play Store, harming consumers by limiting choice and driving up app prices. In addition to Utah, the named party in the filing, the lawsuit is co-led by AGs in New York, Tennessee, and North Carolina.

“Google’s monopoly is a menace to the marketplace. Google Play is not fair play. Google must be held accountable for harming small businesses and consumers. It must stop using its monopolistic power and hyper-dominant market position to unlawfully leverage billions of added dollars from smaller companies, competitors and consumers beyond what should be paid,” said Utah Attorney General Reyes. 

“Most consumers have no idea that for years Google has imposed unnecessary fees far beyond the market rates for in-app transactions, unlawfully inflating costs for many services, upgrades and other purchases made through apps downloaded on the Google Play Store. As a result, a typical American consumer may have paid hundreds if not thousands of dollars more than needed over many years,” Reyes added. “Utah and the other states in our coalition are fighting back to protect our citizens and innovative app developers—including many small businesses across America—from Google’s unlawful practices.”

According to the lawsuit, the heart of the case centers on Google’s exclusionary conduct, which substantially shuts out competing app distribution channels. Google also requires that app developers that offer their apps through the Google Play Store use Google Billing as a middleman. This arrangement, which ties a payment processing system to an app distribution channel forces app consumers to pay Google’s commission – up to 30% – on in-app purchases of digital content made by consumers through apps that are distributed via the Google Play Store. This commission is much higher than the commission that consumers would pay if they had the ability to choose one of Google’s competitors instead. The lawsuit alleges that Google works to discourage or prevent competition, violating federal and state antitrust laws. Google had earlier promised app developers and device manufacturers that it would keep Android “open source,” allowing developers to create compatible apps and distribute them without unnecessary restrictions.  The lawsuit says Google did not keep that promise. 

Google Closed the Android App Distribution Ecosystem to Competitors

When Google launched its Android OS, it originally marketed it as an “open source” platform. By promising to keep Android open, Google successfully enticed “OEMs”—mobile device manufacturers such as Samsung—and “MNOs”—mobile network operators such as Verizon—to adopt Android, and more importantly, to forgo competing with Google’s Play Store at that time. Once Google had obtained the “critical mass” of Android OS adoption, Google moved to close the Android OS ecosystem—and the relevant Android App Distribution Market—to any effective competition by, among other things, requiring OEMs and MNOs to enter into various contractual and other restraints. These contractual restraints disincentivize and restrict OEMs and MNOs from competing (or fostering competition) in the relevant market. The lawsuit alleges that Google’s conduct constitutes unlawful monopoly maintenance, among other claims.

In aid of Google’s efforts discussed above, the AGs allege that Google also engaged in the following conduct, all aimed at enhancing and protecting Google’s monopoly position over Android app distribution:

  • Google imposes technical barriers that strongly discourage or effectively prevent third-party app developers from distributing apps outside of the Google Play Store. Google builds into Android a series of security warnings (regardless of actual security risk) and other barriers that discourage users from downloading apps from any source outside Google’s Play Store, effectively foreclosing app developers and app stores from direct distribution to consumers.
  • Google has not allowed Android to be “open source” for many years, effectively cutting off potential competition. Google forces OEMs that whish to sell devices that run Android to enter into agreements called “Android Compatibility Commitments” or ACCs. Under these “take it or leave it” agreements, OEMs must promise not to create or implement any variants or versions of Android that deviate from the Google-certified version of Android.
  • Google’s required contracts foreclose competition by forcing Google’s proprietary apps to be “pre-loaded” on essentially all devices designed to run on the Android OS, and requires that Google’s apps be given the most prominent placement on device home screens.
  • Google “buys off” its potential competition in the market for app distribution. Google has successfully persuaded OEMs and MNOs not to compete with Google’s Play Store by entering into arrangements that reward OEMs and MNOs with a share of Google’s monopoly profits.
  • Google forces app developers and app users alike to use Google’s payment processing service, Google Play Billing, to process payments for in-app purchases of content consumed within the app. Thus, Google is unlawfully tying the use of Google’s payment processor, which is a separate service within a separate market for payment processing within apps, to distribution through the Google Play Store. By forcing this tie, Google is able to extract an exorbitant processing fee as high as 30% for each transaction and which is more than ten times as high as the fee charged by Google’s competitors.

This effort is led by Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes, New York Attorney General Letitia James, North Carolina Attorney General Josh Stein and Tennessee Attorney General Herbert Slatery III. States joining the lawsuit include Alaska, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia.

Click here to see Frequently Asked Questions regarding the lawsuit.

Click here to see the text of the Utah v. Google lawsuit.

AG Reyes Shares at Larkin Sunset Gardens Memorial Day Service

May 28, 2019

Yesterday, Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes had the distinct privilege to share with the families who’ve lost loved ones and honor those who gave their lives in service at the Larkin Sunset Gardens Memorial Day service.

I am honored to address veterans and their families here at Larkin Sunset Gardens for this Memorial Day service. Especially now, as our country has men and women serving in harm’s way, we offer gratitude to those who have paid the ultimate sacrifice for our freedoms.

Our nations’ freedoms mean everything to me and my entire family. We are all extremely grateful to those who sacrifice to keep our nation great.

Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes

In Honor of Those We Lost

May 27, 2019

This Memorial Day weekend, as we enjoy the privilege of being a part of this great nation, the Utah Attorney General’s office extends its gratitude to those who sacrificed their lives to protect our country and keep it free.

May we never forget what it took for us to enjoy the liberty and prosperity within which we all live.

However you choose to celebrate, please be careful and travel safe.

AG Reyes Calls for Forgiveness of Disabled Veterans School Loans

May 24, 2019

Sean D. Reyes Leads a Nationwide Petition to the Education Secretary

SALT LAKE CITYAs the nation prepares to honor fallen troops on Memorial Day, Attorney General Sean D. Reyes is leading a bipartisan coalition of 51 Attorneys General (50 states and Guam) to urge the Department of Education and Secretary Betsy DeVos to automatically forgive the student loans of veterans who became totally and permanently disabled in connection with their military service.

This effort, led by Attorney General Reyes and New Jersey Attorney General Gurbir S. Grewal, calls on DOE to develop a process to automatically discharge the `student loans of veterans determined by the Department of Veterans Affairs to be eligible for such relief. While the automatic discharge process is in development, the letter proposes DOE should halt debt collection efforts targeting disabled veterans and clear their credit reports of any negative reporting related to their student loans. 

“Forgiving their school loans is the least we can do to recognize their service and sacrifice,” Attorney General Reyes said. “These veterans have suffered permanent and total disability as a direct result of their service to our country. They and their families have sacrificed health, quality of life, and often their dreams for the future. Many have lost their ability to work and pay off any school debt.”

“There are many veterans in our state who signed up to serve our country and suffered life-altering injuries as a result,” Major General (ret.) and Chief Civil Deputy Brian L. Tarbet said. “Discharging their student loan debt is simply the right thing to do. I personally know of military families in this situation who could benefit from this kind of assistance but would never ask for it. Let’s make it easier on them to make a better life for themselves after the life-changing sacrifices they made.”

Last year DOE identified more than 42,000 veterans nationwide as eligible for student loan relief due to a service-related total and permanent disability, the attorneys general note in their letter to Secretary DeVos. Fewer than 9,000 of those veterans had applied to have their loans discharged by April 2018, however, and more than 25,000 had student loans in default.

The letter urges an automatic loan discharge process that gives individual veterans an opportunity to opt out for personal reasons “would eliminate unnecessary paperwork burdens and ensure that all eligible disabled veterans can receive a discharge.”

“Currently, far too few disabled vets who qualify for loan forgiveness have applied because they are unaware of or unable to make an application for the benefit,” Reyes said. “And far too many are in loan default, which negatively impacts their lives in very serious ways. Automatic forgiveness guarantees each of them the peace of mind they deserve and demonstrates our gratitude as a nation for what they have endured and continue to endure.”

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  1. Read a copy of the attorneys general letter to Secretary DeVos here:
  2. The Utah Attorney General’s office leads Utah@Ease, a public-private partnership that offers legal assistance and representation to veterans and Active Duty, Reserve and National Guard service members. 
  3. The veteran’s groups supporting such proposals have included: Vietnam Veterans for America, Veterans Education Success, The Retired Enlisted Association, High Ground Advocacy, and Ivy League Veterans Council.

Utah AG Urges Congress to Hold Internet Service Providers Accountable

May 23, 2019

SALT LAKE CITY – Attorney General Sean D. Reyes joined 47 attorneys general across the country this week to urge Congress, once again, to amend the Communications Decency Act in order to make sure state and local authorities are able to protect our citizens online and take appropriate action against online criminals.

The Communication Decency Act of 1996 (CDA) was designed to encourage the growth of the internet by promoting free expression, particularly on online message boards. The Act was intended to allow companies who sponsor message boards to remain immune to repercussions from inappropriate posts. However, a misinterpretation of Section 230 of the Act has led some federal court opinions to interpret the Act so broadly that individuals and services, which knowingly aid and profit from illegal activity, have evaded prosecution.

“Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act” and “Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act” (known as FOSTA-SESTA) was signed into law in 2018, making clear that the CDA’s immunity does not apply to enforcement of federal or state sex trafficking laws. Unfortunately, the abuse on these platforms does not stop at sex trafficking, but includes all sorts of harmful illegal activity such as online black market opioid sales, identity theft, and election meddling.

This is not the first time the attorneys general have addressed this issue with Congress. In 2013 and 2017, nearly every state and territory AG wrote to inform Congress of the damaging misinterpretation and misapplication of Section 230 of the CDA.

Section 230 expressly exempts prosecution of federal crimes from the safe harbor, but “addressing criminal activity cannot be relegated to federal enforcement alone simply because the activity occurs online,” the letter states. “Attorneys General must be allowed to address these crimes themselves and fulfill our primary mandate to protect our citizens and enforce their rights.”

In addition to Utah, the following states and territories joined in this letter: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.


The Utah AG, Hexwave & High-tech, Crime-fighting Technology

The Utah Attorney General’s office researches, deploys, and shares cutting edge technology with law enforcement agencies here in Utah and around the world. We do this with careful attention to the crossroads where liberty, privacy, and public safety intersect.

Whether it’s using new technology to speed up DNA testing or capturing real-time intel to solve kidnappings, our office helps Utah live up to its reputation as an innovative, tech-friendly state that respects Constitutional freedoms. Hexwave technology (press release below) promises a faster, less-intrusive way for law enforcement to keep large crowds safe, and we are interested in exploring the possibilities. As long as new technologies respect Constitutional protections, the AG’s office will explore and deploy every tool available to keep people safe and bring criminals to justice.

Audio of AG Reyes addressing the use of Hexwave in Utah:

Media coverage:

Salt Lake Tribune: Utah will test hidden technology that tries to find weapons among crowds at schools, stadiums and churches

Deseret News: Utah Attorney General Sean Reyes says new scanner tech could elevate safety at public venues

Fox13: Utah to test new 3D imaging technology to detect potential threats Utah attorney general signs on to beta test new AI tech that detects concealed weapons

The following press release was issued May 22, 2019 by Liberty Defense.

Liberty Defense Signs MOU with the Utah Attorney General for Testing of HEXWAVE

SALT LAKE CITY and VANCOUVER, May 22, 2019 /CNW/ – Liberty Defense Holdings Ltd. (“Liberty”), a leader in security and weapons detection solutions, is announcing that it has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Office of the Utah Attorney General to beta test HEXWAVE in the state.

The Utah Attorney General, Sean Reyes, is an elected constitutional officer in the executive branch of the state government of Utah. The attorney general is the chief legal officer and legal adviser in the state.

“HEXWAVE can be applied in a variety of settings to provide a means to identify possible threats before they advance into attacks. We are excited that the Attorney General of Utah recognizes the potential value of this technology and the opportunity it provides for enhanced security in the state,” said Bill Riker, CEO of Liberty Defense.

The proposed testing with and through the Office of the Attorney General may include, but is not be limited to:

  • Sporting and concert arenas, stadiums and Olympic venues
  • Primary, secondary and higher education facilities
  • Places of worship, facilities and property owned by or affiliated with faith entities
  • Government offices, buildings and facilities
  • Amusement parks
  • Entertainment events, conventions, shows and festivals

The Attorney General has committed to work in Partnership with Liberty to facilitate introductions and advise interested parties and venues on the potential for HEXWAVE technology. The goal of this initiative is to improve public safety for the citizens of Utah.

“We are pleased to be a part of this phase of testing this new product. Innovation in this space is essential as the type and frequency of threats also evolve. We look forward to evaluating the capabilities of the HEXWAVE product,” said Attorney General Sean Reyes.

This beta testing phase is a key part of the product development process for HEXWAVE. The incremental testing of the system in actual facilities can help to ensure that it is aligned to market requirements. Beta testing is expected to begin later in 2019 and progress into 2020.

About Liberty Defense
Liberty provides security solutions for weapons detection in high volume foot traffic areas and has secured an exclusive licence from MIT Lincoln Laboratory, as well as a technology transfer agreement, for patents related to active 3D imaging technology that are packaged into the HEXWAVE product. The system is designed to provide discrete, modular and scalable protection to provide layered, stand-off detection capability. This is intended to provide a means to proactively counter evolving urban threats. The sensors with active 3D imaging and AI-enhanced automatic detection are designed to detect metallic and non-metallic firearms, knives, explosives and other threats. Liberty is committed to protecting communities and preserving peace of mind through superior security detection solutions. Learn more: 

About Utah Attorney General
Since the admission of Utah as a state on January 4, 1896, the Attorney General has been an independently elected constitutional officer of the executive department and serves four-year terms. The current Utah Attorney General is Sean Reyes.

About Utah
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U.S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, and 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah was the home of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games and may yet host future Olympic games.

Utah AG Investigates Record Number of Police Shootings in Utah

May 22, 2019

In 2018, Utah police officers fired at 30 individuals and killed 19, making it one of the deadliest years in recent history. Each month of last year in the state of Utah, someone died from lethal force used by a law enforcement agent.

Earlier this year, Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes sent a letter to all law enforcement partners to inform them of a study this office has since launched. The study will compare 2018 with previous years in an effort to discover trends and factors contributing to the higher rate of police-involved deaths.

“Utah experienced a record number of officer-involved shootings in 2018. All of us in law enforcement have taken note of this increase and the impact it has on our officers and on the public. I believe this warrants a cooperative in-depth study to see what actions we might take to reduce the number of shootings, increase the safety of our officers, and maintain a high level of public trust.”

Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes in a letter to law enforcement partners

You can read the letter sent from the AG’s office here.

Scott Carver, Director of Training for the AG, is overseeing the evaluation along with the Police Officer Standards and Training, or POST, and the Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice.

According to Carver, the best thing people can do when approached by a police officer is to listen and follow the directions being given.

The Salt Lake Tribune recently covered the action being taken by the AG office. You can find that article below.

Salt Lake Tribune: Police in Utah fatally shot a record 19 people in 2018. Now the state attorney general is investigating why.

It is important to note that the trend for 2018 has not carried over into 2019.

Image by Alexas_Fotos

Utah AG Announces 13 Arrests of ICAC Operation

May 20, 2019

Over 45 Charges Issued to Offenders Arrested in Utah County

SALT LAKE CITY – Today, Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes announced the arrest of thirteen individuals in Utah County following a recent operation targeting child sexual predators. Charges include Enticing a Minor, Attempted Rape of a Child, Attempted Sodomy of a Child, Attempted Aggravated Sexual Abuse of a Child, Attempted Forcible Sexual Abuse, Criminal Solicitation, and more, for a total of 48 charges.

“The bad news is the information we are sharing today is grim in nature and shows that there are adults in our communities who appear to be actively and aggressively trying to have sexual contact with Utah children,” said Attorney General Reyes. “My office works with children who are actual victims of sexual abuse and rape; we see these children and the trauma they suffer. That’s why we perform these operations, and why we’re so committed to preventing harm where we can and prosecuting every possible crime against children that we can. Our goal is to prevent this kind of trauma from happening to even one more child.”

The investigation, led by the Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Force, indicated the suspects primarily targeted boys and girls between the ages of 11 and 13 years old. These suspects, if convicted, would be considered among the most dangerous and aggressive child predators because their activity indicates a plan to engage in sexual contact with a minor.

Based on the number of cases law enforcement agencies have handled across the state, evidence shows that this problem has become more pervasive in the last year.

Attorney General Reyes addressed that troubling trend today during a press conference alongside ICAC officers from the Provo Police Department, Orem Police Department, Utah County Sheriff’s office, Uintah County Sheriff’s office, Dixie State University Police, Davis County Attorney’s office, and Adult Probation and Parole who all participated in the operation. 

Keeping Children Safe

The Utah Attorney General’s ICAC Education Specialist has the following tips:

As community members, our role is to help protect children. If you know of anyone who is contacting children, please call your local law enforcement or the ICAC Tip Line at 801-281-1211.

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  1. All suspects are presumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.
  2. The Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force (ICAC) is a multi-jurisdictional task force that investigates and prosecutes individuals who use the Internet to exploit children.
  3. You can find a list of the alleged offenders and charges here:
  4. You can find the booking photos here:

President Donald J. Trump Signs Executive Order on the Economic Empowerment of Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders

May 13, 2019

Earlier this year, Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes was appointed to President Donald J. Trump’s Advisory Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islanders. Today he joined the President and other council members for the signing of the Executive Order commemorating Asian Pacific Heritage Month.

Today, President Donald J. Trump signed the Executive Order “Economic Empowerment of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders” in Celebration of Asian Pacific American Heritage Month. Looking on were the council’s Co-Chairs: Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross and Secretary of Transportation Elaine L. Chao; and its commissioners: Amata Coleman Radewagen, Delegate for the U.S. House of Representatives, American Samoa; Sean Reyes, State of Utah Attorney General; Dr. Paul Hsu of Florida; David B. Cohen of California; Y. Lee of Michigan; George Leing of Colorado; Jan-Ie Low of Nevada; Herman Martir of Texas; Prem Parameswaran of New York; and Chiling Tong of Maryland.

You can read the entire Executive Order here: .

Utah Joins Lawsuit Against 20 Generic Drug Makers for Price Fixing

May 13, 2019

AG Coalition Presents Hard Evidence Showing Multi-billion Dollar Fraud on Americans

SALT LAKE CITY – Utah Attorney General Sean D. Reyes joined 44 states announcing a lawsuit against Teva Pharmaceuticals and 19 of the nation’s largest generic drug manufacturers alleging a broad conspiracy to artificially inflate and manipulate prices as well as reduce competition for more than 100 different generic drugs.

“The price fixing case against these pharmaceutical companies has been building for years, and it’s time we hold them accountable for manipulating the market,” Attorney General Reyes said. “It’s outrageous that these companies colluded to inflate prices on generic drugs that should be affordable and increase quality of life for many people, like antibiotics and asthma medication.”

The complaint alleges that Teva, Sandoz, Mylan, Pfizer, and 16 other generic drug manufacturers engaged in a broad, coordinated and systematic campaign to conspire with each other to fix prices, allocate markets and rig bids for more than 100 different generic drugs.

The lawsuit lays out an interconnected web of industry executives meeting with each other to unlawfully discourage competition and includes emails, text messages, telephone records, and former company insiders reflecting a multi-year conspiracy to fix prices and divide the market share for huge numbers of generic drugs. In some instances, the coordinated price increases were over 1,000 percent.

The drugs span all types, including tablets, capsules, suspensions, creams, gels, ointments, and all classes, including statins, ace inhibitors, beta blockers, antibiotics, anti-depressants, contraceptives, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These drugs are used to treat a range of diseases and conditions from basic infections to diabetes, cancer, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, HIV, ADHD, and more. 

The complaint is the second to be filed in an ongoing, expanding investigation that has been referred to as possibly the largest cartel case in the history of the United States.

In addition to Utah, other joining states include Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Puerto Rico.

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  1. You can find a copy of the complaint here:
  2. The first complaint is still pending U.S. District Court in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and includes 18 corporate defendants, two individual defendants, and 15 generic drugs. You can read that complaint here:
  3. This case was featured on the Sunday, May 12 episode of 60 Minutes on CBS. You can view that here:
  4. The list of corporate defendants is as follows: 1. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; 2. Sandoz, Inc.; 3. Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 4. Actavis Holdco US, Inc.; 5. Actavis Pharma, Inc.; 6. Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 7. Apotex Corp.; 8. Aurobindo Pharma U.S.A., Inc.; 9. Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.; 10. Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Inc.; 11. Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc. USA; 12. Greenstone LLC; 13. Lannett Company, Inc.; 14. Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 15. Par Pharmaceutical Companies, Inc.; 16. Pfizer, Inc.; 17. Taro Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; 18. Upsher-Smith Laboratories, LLC; 19. Wockhardt USA, LLC; and 20. Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.
  5. The list of individual defendants is as follows: 1. Ara Aprahamian, Vice President of Sales and Marketing at Taro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A, Inc.; 2. David Berthold, Vice President of Sales at Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 3. James Brown, Vice President of Sales at Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 4. Maureen Cavanaugh, former Senior Vice President and Chief Commercial Officer, North America, for Teva; 5. Marc Falkin, former Vice President, Marketing, Pricing and Contracts at Actavis; 6. James Grauso, former Senior Vice President, Commercial Operations for Aurobindo from December 2011 through January 2014. Since February 2014, Grauso has been employed as the Executive Vice President, N.A. Commercial Operations at Glenmark; 7. Kevin Green, former Director of National Accounts at Teva from January 2006 through October 2013.  Since November 2013, Green has worked at Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. as the Vice President of Sales; 8. Armando Kellum, former Vice President, Contracting and Business Analytics at Sandoz; 9. Jill Nailor, Senior Director of Sales and National Accounts at Greenstone; 10. James Nesta, Vice President of Sales at Mylan; 11. Kon Ostaficiuk, the President of Camber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 12. Nisha Patel, former Director of Strategic Customer Marketing and later, Director of National Accounts at Teva.; 13. David Rekenthaler, former Vice President, Sales US Generics at Teva; 14. Richard Rogerson, former Executive Director of Pricing and Business Analytics at Actavis; and 15. Tracy Sullivan DiValerio, Director of National Accounts at Lannett.

Photo by Mika Baumeister